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Posts published in “Computer & Internet”

IGMP snooping (Bridge operation)

What is Meant by RFC 4541 when it says...

4) All non-IPv4 multicast packets should continue to be flooded out to all remaining ports in the forwarding state as per normal IEEE bridging operations.

Remote sniffing with ERSPAN to the desktop

I know how to use both SPAN and RSPAN. If I'm not wrong, ERSPAN leads us to the possibility of remotely monitoring a router through an IP network and a GRE tunnel. However a tunnel end-point is needed.

My question is, is it...

Destination node sequence number increment policy

I read the following from RFC 3561 - AODV, page 11:

A destination node increments its own sequence number in two circumstances:

- Immediately before a node originates a route discovery, it MUST
increment its own s...

What is the difference between VPLS vs Layer 2 VPN?

Apologies about the very open ended question, but I am struggling to differentiate between VPLS & L2 VPN's. I'm aware they both run over MPLS, but I can't find any documentation or sites that clearly explain what either a...

What layer of the OSI model does NAT work?

Simple question and the answer is layer 3 of course, but can we say that PAT is working on layer 4 also because it deals with port numbers which is a layer 4 function?

Or is it only a layer 3 protocol?

Why do we still use Ethernet?

There's no doubt the vast majority of Ethernet frames are transporting IP packets. I know there are various other protocols that can be transported over Ethernet as well, but those can be transported over IP as well.

With mo...

Users want to work remotely, but need to use the same LAN IP addresses

I have users that need to be able to work remotely. In their current environment they use workstations with unique software that requires their IP address remain the same. Now that they are working remotely, they are assigned a new DHCP ...

IPv4 & IPv6 IPSec differences

I am an undergraduate student where I decided to develop a firmware that would eliminate the security vulnerabilities that exist within the current technologies used. such as tunneling, translation and dual stack.

To do thi...

Alternatives to multiple Service Providers

I have one SP right now that serves 100 Sites and we are currently planning to migrate all the sites to a new SP. However, this will be a phased migration, so we will have some sites in the new SP cloud and others in the old one.
The SPs w...