institutions are including students with mild disabilities in regular sessions with normal students. Inclusion is the placement of students with disabilities in the general education
classroom. A study shows that the
inclusion of the students with mild disabilities improves their performance (Lerner
et al., 2014). It is the
obligation of a teacher(s) to
plan for every
student in the classroom. Teachers handling a classroom with normal students and those
with mild disabilities need a special education
program so that
they can deliver sufficient attention to the disabled students.
Timeline for Start and Completion Dates
The start and completion date timeline can help the teacher develop a clear image of the project information. The timeline start and completion date timeline creates a guideline for the flow of the activities in the project (Vallecorsaet al., 2000).
- The timeline should indicate the title of the project.
- The timeline should also indicate the goal of the project. The goal of this project is an outcome the teachers target after completion of the project (Vallecorsaet al., 2000).
- The timeline should also have a long-term milestone(s) that indicate successful completion of the project.
- The timeline should also have specific time-based and measurable activities that support the completion of the project.
- Each activity should have a timeframe that indicating the beginning and end of the activity.
- The teacher should also indicate the milestones of the objective to provide guidelines for successful completion of the activity (Vallecorsaet al., 2000).
- The timeline should also identify the teacher /team member responsible for each activity (Vallecorsaet al., 2000).
Functional Behavior Assessment
The functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is a tool used to analyze the relationship between behavior and the context in which the behavior occur using systematic evidence-based process (Lerner et al., 2014). One of the primordial purposes of using this tool is the development of effective positive interventions based on the function of the behavior (Lerner et al., 2014). The assessment has defined behavior in observable and measurable terms; specify the routines of the behavior; verify the routines of the behavior and draw hypothesis of the behavior (Lerner et al., 2014).
- List several issues related to mild disabilities in the general education classroom you would like to address (Lerner et al., 2014).
- Transcribe the behavior and provide observable and measurable definitions. The teacher(S) has to indicate observable and measurable definitions that any individual can fully comprehend (Lerner et al., 2014).
- Identify the behavior, antecedent and routines for the settings you created
- Identify the routine, antecedent, behavior, and outcomes for the settings you identified
environment has a great impact on the performance
of the students and their psychological well-being (Downing, 2010). The formal tests offered
by institutions rank the students according
to their academic achievements
but fail to reveal the impact
of the environment on students (Downing, 2010). An environmental assessment carried out by the teacher should elaborate on the role
of the student’s environment in their behavior (Downing,
- Use the academic and disciplinary records to create a description of the student
- Perform interviews with the parents or guardians to obtain information about the student (Downing, 2010).
- Observe the behavior of the student in numerous settings
- Perform a face-to-face dialog with the learner
- Solicit objective data from teachers (Downing, 2010).
Social and Emotional Goals and Benchmarks
Social and emotional learning is the process through which students learn to recognize and manage emotions, make proper and ethical decisions and other essential aspects in their life (Brownell, 2012). There are several primordial goals for social and emotional learning (Brownell, 2012).
- The development of a strong sense of self-awareness
- Students can exercise self-management
- Students develop social awareness
- Students develop social management
- Establish rules and expectations for appropriate behavior by teaching and assessing the behavioral expectations to help students remember (Brownell, 2012).
- Create high and sensible standards for behavioral and academic expectations. It assists the teacher set up positive behavioral management (Brownell, 2012).
- Carry out a functional behavioral assessment to identify the critical issues for each student and tutor new target behaviors to help them learn necessary skills (Brownell, 2012).
- Collect data consistently to monitor student behavior
Academic Goals and Benchmarks
A study shows that the development rate of students with mild disabilities included to normal programs is higher than those in secluded institutions (Smith, 2000). The goals and benchmarks allow the teacher to identify the progress of the student in their academics (Smith, 2000).
- The teacher must include short-term instructional objectives or benchmarks as general pointers of growth.
- Assessment of a student’s progress must include evaluative criteria, evaluation methods, and schedules (Smith, 2000).
- The teacher should break down the skills of a student into distinct components
- The teacher should also assess the anticipated amount of growth the learner should make within a particular period (usually longer than a short-term goal) (Smith, 2000).
Behavior Intervention Plan
Teachers need to learn the elements of effectual planning, constructive behavioral supports and conformity with the regulations among other important aspects to effectively execute behavioral assessments and intervention plans (Simonsen & Myers, 2015). The behavioral intervention planning process has three distinct steps:
- Collect background information regarding a student
- Evaluating the nature of the student’s behavior
- Developing a plan for the student
Collecting Background information
- Evaluate the student’s academic and disciplinary records.
- Carry out interviews with the parents of the learner to obtain information
- Observe the behavior of the student in numerous settings
- Perform a one-on-one interview with the learner
- Soliciting objective data from teachers
- Perform a functional behavioral assessment
Evaluating the nature of the student’s behavior
- Identify whether the student(s) knows right from wrong
- Identify whether the behavior is a cause of impulsivity, hostility or rebelliousness
- Assess whether the specific issue associates to behavioral concerns caused by the disability
- Assess whether the disability limits the Learner’s capability to tackle nerve-racking situations?
- Evaluate whether the disability meddles with a learner’s capability to build and sustain suitable relationships.
- Evaluate whether the disability obstructs a student’s capability to express proper feelings.
Developing a plan for the student
- Review the targeted behavior in functional behavioral assessment.
- Determine behavioral goals that associated with escalating or diminishing the specific behavior.
- Verify the specific intervention tactics suitable for the behavior. Include a description of the individual(s) who will implement the plan.
- Determine the appropriate dates to examine the plan and evaluate its success.
- Determine suitable ways of evaluating the plan (Simonsen & Myers, 2015).
Manifestation Determination Meeting
Manifestation determination meeting determines if the behavior problem of a learner may be a manifestation of the learner’s disability Odom, 2009). The IEP team convenes for the team when the school wants to exclude a student due to disabilities. There are several steps for a successful execution of a manifestation determination (Odom, 2009)
- Collect every relevant data about the student from the parents
- The IEP coalition should determine whether the information collected is sufficient to make the manifest determination (Odom, 2009).
- The team should also determine if the case requires further information to make the manifestation determination.
- The team should determine if the student’s current special education program needs changes
- The IEP coalition must discuss the attributes of the student’s disability
Timeline for Implementation
The purpose of the implementation timeline is to provide a format in which the teacher defines the tasks required to implement each activity (Vallecorsaet al., 2000). The timeline also sets target dates for the completion of activities. The teacher will use the timeline as a working document by the entire social, behavioral goal development (Vallecorsaet al., 2000).
- Identify the title of the project
- Indicate an outcome statement that describes the intent of the program after completion of the project period (Vallecorsaet al., 2000).
- Identify the possible result if the teacher accomplishes the project period goal
- Create standard(s) to evaluate the progress of the project towards accomplishing the progress period goals.
- Indicate specific, time-based, and measurable actions necessary for completion of the project period goals.
- Indicate the standard(s) an administrator of the project sets to measure progress in accomplishing an objective (progress indicator).
- Indicate the key actions executed to accomplish a specific objective. Each activity/objective in the timeline should have a minimum of four key activities (Vallecorsaet al., 2000).
- Identify the teacher/team member responsible for each objective
- Indicate the completion date for each objective
Brownell, M. (2012). Inclusive instruction: Evidence-based practices for teaching students with disabilities. New York: Guilford Press.
Downing, J. (2010). Academic instruction for students with moderate and severe intellectual disabilities in inclusive classrooms. Thousand Oaks: Corwin.
Durlak, J., Domitrovich, C., Weissberg, R., & Gullotta, T. (2015). Handbook of social and emotional learning: Research and practice, Guilford Publications
Lerner, J., Johns, B., & Lerner, J. (2014). Learning disabilities and related disabilities: Strategies for success. Cengage Learning
Odom, S. (2009). Handbook of developmental disabilities. New York: Guilford.
Simonsen, B., & Myers, D. (2015). Classwide positive behavior interventions and supports: A guide to proactive classroom management. Guilford Publications
Smith, D. (2000). Introduction to special education: Teaching in an age of opportunity. S.l.: Allyn & Bacon.
Vallecorsa, A., DeBettencourt, L., Zigmond, N., & Davis, A. (2000). Students with mild disabilities in general education settings: A guide for special educators. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Merrill.
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