Digital picture books: A new opportunity for children whose parents do not read with them
Reading digital books can promote story comprehension more than reading the same books on paper. However, this occurs only when the digital books are equipped with content-related enhancements. This finding comes from our quantitative review of 39 studies involving 1,812 children, most of whom were 4- to 5-year-olds. Only nine studies included children mainly from low SES families, and the rest focused on children from middle or high social economic status families or mixed groups. The studies were from the United States, Canada, Israel, and the Netherlands. Digital books can offer oral narration and enhancements to replace an adult pointing, commenting, and explaining to a child. These enhancements provide background information and explain events. For example, in Elmo Goes to the Doctor, the reader can click each character in the waiting room and see why each one is at the doctor’s office. Likewise, hotspots in other digital books may elicit comments from characters that expand on the text and provide additional information to support comprehension. However, not all digital books enhance story comprehension. A digital book that lacks enhancements – which is practically the same as the paper version – has less effect than a paper book. The most plausible reason is that the device on which the child is reading the digital book attracts the child’s attention at the expense of the story. Our review also found that digital books can have enhancements that interfere with story comprehension. For example, many commercially published digital picture books include a dictionary. The reader can tap on individual pictures to make the name of the object or action pop up and hear the word spoken aloud. This enhancement has either no effect or a negative effect on children’s story comprehension. This is not surprising, given that focusing attention on word meanings distracts children’s attention from the storyline. Young children do not have the cognitive resources to focus on word meanings and the storyline at the same time.