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Endocrine and Musculoskeletal Disorder

Endocrine and Musculoskeletal Disorder

Diabetes affects children and adults. The most efficient way to manage diabetes is with prompt diagnosis and treatment. Untreated diabetes can cause complications such as heart disease, ******, blindness and kidney failure. Healthcare professionals must make correct diagnosis immediately they suspect that a patient has diabetes. The diagnosis exercise must include establishing the particular type of diabetes affecting the patient. The paper below addresses the different types of diabetes and subsequent treatment options (Arcangelo, & Peterson, 2013).

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (juvenile diabetes) accounts for 5-10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes, in America. Type 1 diabetes affects children and adults although it can start at any age. Healthcare workers associate the occurrence of type 1 diabetes with genetic and environmental factors. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the patient’s immune system begins to attacks and destroy cells responsible for insulin production, in the pancreas. The destruction of the insulin-producing cells hinders the entrance of glucose into the cells. Subsequently, glucose builds up in the blood rather than in the cells. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes include high sugar levels in the blood and ***** and high levels of thirst. The patient may also experience frequent urination, extreme hunger, loss of weight, fatigue, nausea, mood swings, and blurred vision. Healthcare professionals must detect and treat type 1 diabetes within the shortest time to minimize the risk of complications such as hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and ketoacidosis.

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by the body’s failure to create enough or to use insulin correctly. The failure of the body to manufacture or utilize insulin means that the body fails to transport blood sugar into the cells. In most instances, Type 2 diabetes begins as prediabetes where an individual has high levels of blood sugar but inadequate for a diabetes categorization. Unfortunately, persons with prediabetes get types two diabetes within ten years. The cause of type 2 diabetes remains unknown although healthcare professionals detect a genetic link (Chang, & Elliot, 2006). Type 2 diabetes has no cure thus the need for individuals to prevent its occurrence or delay its onset. Individuals can strive to lose weight as well as intensify their exercise regime.

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes refers to increased glucose levels during pregnancy. Expectant women are prone to gestational diabetes even when they have never had diabetes or diabetic symptoms in the past. Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy and disappears immediately after pregnancy. Expectant women acquire gestational diabetes when hormones have a blocking effect on the production of insulin. During pregnancy, the placenta provides the unborn child with nutrients as well as hormones such as estrogen and cortisol, to enhance development. Unfortunately, the hormones can block the insulin production process. The continued growth of the placenta further affects insulin production thus resulting to gestational diabetes. Any expectant woman is prone to gestational diabetes although factors such as overweight, obesity, and a family history of diabetes can intensify the threat of gestational diabetes (Chang, & Elliot, 2006).

Treatment for Gestational Diabetes

The effective management of gestational diabetes is to control the patient’s weight and diet. Healthcare professionals must work with the expectant mother to regulate their weight and ensure that it is not too high. A nutritionist can draw a nutritional program for the patient with emphasis on the consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, healthcare professionals can provide the patient with medication if the diabetes is severe. The patient may undergo insulin therapy sessions. Expectant women who are insulin-resistant may receive insulin injections as a strategy for lowering blood glucose levels. The administration of insulin is through an injection. The frequency of the insulin injections means that healthcare professionals must train the patient on how to inject themselves. The patients also need education on the proper storage of insulin, as well as the detection of the symptoms of low blood sugar.

Healthcare professionals prescribe the insulin as a rapid-acting insulin analogs or basal insulin (Arcangelo, & Peterson, 2013). The rapid-acting insulin analogs requires the patient to inject the insulin before or just after meals. The basal insulin prescription requires the patient to inject himself at bedtime or upon waking up. The two types of insulin prescriptions are safe for use during pregnancy. However, the patient must monitor her blood sugar. The patient must test her blood glucose every one to two hours after every meal. The patient must also check her blood glucose upon waking up so as to determine the level of fasting blood glucose.

Potential Risks

It is critical for an expectant woman with gestational diabetes to undergo close monitoring of her unborn child. Gestation Diabetes poses a risk to the unborn child. The child may become too large thus compromising the mother’s health. In case of a large baby, the mother may have to undergo a caesarean injection on a scheduled date rather than wait for regular contractions and delivery. The woman may have to have an intravenous drip of insulin during childbirth so as to regulate blood sugar levels (Chang, & Elliot, 2006). The baby also requires close monitoring after birth so as to ascertain his or her blood sugar levels. Gestational diabetes aggravates the threat of type 2 diabetes thus the need for close monitoring for at least three months after delivery.


Arcangelo, V. P., & Peterson, A. M. (2013). Pharmacotherapeutics for Advanced Practice: A Practical Approach. Ambler, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Chang, E. & Elliot, D. (2006). Pathophysiology applied to nursing practice. Elsevier Publishing



Gout occurs when the patient experiences irate sodium formation inside and around his joints. The buildup of uric acid in the blood increases the risk of gout. Uric acid is a waste product that the body excretes through the kidneys. The overproduction of uric acid or the failure to excrete uric acid through urination can result in the formation of sodium irate. The buildup of sodium-irate is slow and gradual thus easy for an individual to fail to detect a problem. Individuals may be uninformed of their illness until they begin to experience sudden and severe joint pains (Terkeltaub, & Edwards, 2011). The joint pains can also include swelling and redness of the affected joints. Gout symptoms develop rapidly and may last up to ten days. The gout attack may disappear after the ten days, and the joints may feel normal again. However, it is certain that the attack may return in the future.

The effective treatment of gout emphasizes on relieving the symptoms and preventing subsequent gout attacks. Health care professionals can recommend non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs). The patient takes the NSAIDs through the mouth. NSAIDs function by reducing inflammation caused by the uric acid deposits around the joints. NSAIDs can cause stomach irritation and in severe cases affect the optimal functioning of the kidneys. Patients must take NSAIDs for a specified short duration since prolonged usage can result in severe side effects.

Additionally, the health care practitioner should consider the patient’s age when prescribing NSAIDs. NSAIDs are effective for use in young adults; however, the prolonged use in elderly patients increases the risk of peptic ulcer, acute renal failure, and myocardial infarction. Moreover, overuse of NSAIDs can worsen chronic conditions such as heart failure and hypertension. Healthcare professionals that prescribe NSAIDs to the elderly patient must ensure the medication is short-term (Marcum, & Hanlon, 2010). Healthcare professionals can also consider giving short half-life NSAIDs such as ibuprofen.

Alternative medicines that health care professionals can consider include corticosteroids. Prednisone is an example of a corticosteroid. Corticosteroids are strong anti-inflammatory hormones that relieve gout attacks within a few hours of an acute attack. Patient take corticosteroids by mouth or through an injection into the affected joint. Health care professionals can also recommend lifestyle changes such as the cessation of alcohol consumption, weight management through exercise and the consumption of a nutritious/balanced diet. A balanced diet, as well as the consumption of plenty of non-alcoholic fluids, helps the body to remove uric acid from the body.

In conclusion, gout is a manageable disease through effective medication and a change of lifestyle. Patients can realize a reduction of severe gout attacks through effective management. Patient must consult a healthcare provider immediately they begin to experience joint pains and inflammation. Additionally, the health care provider must educate the patient on the effective management of the disease.


Marcum, Z. & Hanlon, J. (2010). Recognizing the risks of chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Journal of long-term care. Vol. 18(9):24-27

Terkeltaub, R. & Edwards, L. (2011). Gout: Diagnosis and management. Professional communications

Sherry Roberts is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in custom speech writing companies services. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from affordable term papers services.

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