Pharmacy department provides drug information services to various branches of medical and nursing departments such as quality and safety department. Pharmaceutical services include appropriate, accurate, and real time dispensing of medications to patients. The pharmacy department focuses on providing standard-setting in offering a direct patient pharmaceutical care as well as defining methods that improve pharmacy department. Department of Pharmacy is dedicated to providing safety, high-quality pharmaceutical services to patients by providing an atmosphere of educational growth, ethical operations, and communication.
Quality and Safety Department
Quality and safety department is highly committed to providing safest, highest quality, as well as most satisfying health care services where possible. It is the leading department in improving effective health care quality and safety. The main role of quality and safety department is to help in the development of industries best practices. The department ensures quality measures are applied through maintaining quality committee that performs reviewing of health care standards t guarantee improved performance in healthcare services.
The finance department has a policy that provides medically necessary health care to the all patients regardless of their ability to pay. The role of Finance department is ensuring that they have minimized healthcare billing costs. They maintain privacy and confidential for any assistance in settling hospital bills. The provide assistance in the event of urgent care, emergencies, and other outpatient and inpatient charges during treatment or while the patient is being discharged. The department provides clear information regarding any inquiries regarding payments of any services provided by doctors, physicians, surgeon, radiologists and pathologist to insurance, or any other third party concerned with paying off medical bills.
Procedures Followed and their Critical Analysis
The process of exchanging clinical data and information has improved. The procedures for transferring patient data and information are implemented through methods that guarantee patients privacy, confidentiality, and integrity. The procedures applied include word processors among junior medical officers, hand over sheets among nurses. Literature provides that data and information should be shared through electronic tools to achieve complete patient privacy (Poston, Reynolds, & Gillenson, 2007). Electronic methodologies guarantee complete documentation as well as quality information transfer. The standardized approaches applied in exchanging data and information between pharmacy department staff and quality and safety department staff does not improve the accuracy of information exchanged (Tomkins, et al., 2012).
Health care units make use of standard operating protocols (SOPs) the development and implementation of SOPs has greatly improved healthcare services such as pediatric surgery and intensive care units through reducing technical errors, and pharmacy drugs description information omission (Kilpatrick, Lavoie-Tremblay, Ritchie, Lamothe, & Doran, 2012). Literature has critically challenged complete reliance on human intervention in the implementation of medical prescriptions. Implementation of modern systems such as handheld devices in finance departments, compatible approved machines in the field of quality and safety department as well as the implementation of health care management systems in pharmacy, has improved healthcare services (Nunes, Rego, & Brandão, 2009). The impact of such procedures has led to the improved utilization of medical facilities through reduced vandalizing of drugs, reduced adverse events such as inaccurate prescriptions. However, though most o-f inventory systems have improved health care sector, some machines have limited user-centered design thus leading to overworking, stress, and prolonged shifts for nurses (Ballout, Diab, Harb, Tarabay, Khamassi, & Akl, 2016).
Challenges That They Are Facing
1. The analysis of clinical challenges was analyzed following the following criteria
2. Which is the healthcare department carry the most risk for patients?
3. What are the healthcare services that are non-effective?
4. What are the critical limitations of successful operations in each department?
5. What are the overlooked opportunities and gaps in various healthcare departments?
One of a major problem in healthcare departments is a lack of clarifications as a result of communication failure among the staff. Staff working in pharmaceutical department fails to consult and work closely with quality and safety department staff. The result is existence poor quality drugs. The various departments in the health sector have inadequate computerized requisition systems (Breckenridge, Lindpaintner, Lipton, McLeod, Rothstein, & Wallace, 2004). Another challenge is the fact that the safety and quality staff have ignored the need for professional staff training as well as experienced staff in pharmacy, finance, and quality and safety department. The lack quality verification and verifying teams have greatly affected the quality of services in the health sector (Poston, Reynolds, & Gillenson, 2007). Monitoring and surveillance operations in each department are ignored. Cost evaluation of various medical equipment and drugs affect the patient. Increased cost of drugs and services highly affect the mode of payment to staff.
Similarly, some of the treatments and cure administered to patients are usually not verified by the concerned departments. A systematic approach to quality is not clearly understood among the staff. The influence of lack of understanding has resulted to overuse or overstatement of expenses that exceeds potential benefits (Crowden, 2010). For example of instances encountered include perverse incentives resulting to increased fee for service payments within the systems.
How To Overcome These Challenges
The various guiding questions to identify the solutions included
1. What are the critical success factors that contribute to success of each department?
2. What are the most appropriate interventions that provide evidence for sustainability and transferability of benefits to society?
One of the major strategies that should be employed is the development of protocols as well as guidelines that facilitate the improvement of communication barriers among the various departmental staff (Lillis, 2002). Well, defined methods and methodologies of communication should be employed for effective sharing of healthcare data and information. Networked systems should be employed to keep each department connected to an appropriate source of data and information. Special monitoring and evaluation officials should be employed. They should evaluate and perform effective auditing of the activities as well as enforce standards and protocols that are necessary for the good of humanity (Chang, 2013).
There should be a special committee that should review the quality, standard, as well as the effectiveness of supplied drugs in the health sector. The concerned members of each department should develop and review comprehensive policies to govern each department to ensure that they have met their appropriate goals, objectives, and visions (Vianueva, 2011). Finally, a comprehensive system should be developed to ensure that the processes involved in the health sector are completely automated. Any information should be processed and stored within computers systems to ensure that that data can be available for references and future decision making. Security, integrity, and confidentiality should be enforced within the system (Koshy, 2005).
Ballout, R. A., Diab, B., Harb, A. C., Tarabay, R., Khamassi, S., & Akl, E. A. (2016). Use of safety-engineered devices by healthcare workers for intravenous and/or phlebotomy procedures in healthcare settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Bmc Health Services Research, 16.
Breckenridge, A., Lindpaintner, K., Lipton, P., McLeod, H., Rothstein, M., & Wallace, H. (2004). Pharmacogenetics: ethical problems and solutions. Nature Reviews. Genetics, 5, 9, 676-80.
Chang, C. M. (2013). Solving the us healthcare problems: The action strategy. International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, 10, 3.)
Crowden, A. (2010). Virtue Ethics and Rural Professional Healthcare Roles. Rural Society, 20, 1, 64-75.
Kilpatrick, K., Lavoie-Tremblay, M., Ritchie, J. A., Lamothe, L., & Doran, D. (2012). Boundary work and the introduction of acute care nurse practitioners in healthcare teams. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68, 7, 1504-1515.
Koshy, R. (2005). Navigating the information technology highway: computer solutions to reduce errors and enhance patient safety. Transfusion, 45.
Lillis, K. (2002). Hospitals find reprocessing solutions to financial and risk problems. Healthcare Purchasing News, 26, 5.)
Nunes, R., Rego, G., & Brandão, C. (2009). Healthcare regulation as a tool for public accountability. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy : a European Journal, 12, 3, 257-264.
Poston, R. S., Reynolds, R. B., & Gillenson, M. L. (2007). Technology solutions for data accuracy and availability problems in healthcare records. Information Systems Management, 24, 1, 59-72.
Tomkins, S. E., Elford, J., Nichols, T., Aston, J., Cliffe, S. J., Roy, K., Grime, P., … Ncube, F. M. (2012). Occupational transmission of hepatitis C in healthcare workers and factors associated with seroconversion: UK surveillance data. Journal of Viral Hepatitis, 19, 3, 199-204.
Vianueva, D. (2011). Healthcare capital projects: how to avoid common problems. Healthcare Financial Management : Journal of the Healthcare Financial Management Association, 65, 4, 86-90.