How can ISPs on one continent connect to ISPs on another continent?

How can ISPs on one continent connect to ISPs on another continent? From a physical layer standpoint?

Say one ISP is located in Asia and another one in Europe how would they connect their fiber optic cable to exchange traffic? Also how would they connect physically through IXP (Internet Exchange Points).

Do they have to drag their fiber optics cable all the way to these locations?

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