How can we identify layer two device in a network or what are those device effects on a frame

This is sample of a traceroute to

TraceRoute from to []
Hop (ms)    (ms)    (ms)             IP Address Host name
1     0       0       0   -  
2     Timed out       Timed out       Timed out               -  
3     1       1       1  
4     1       1       1      -  
5     1       1       1    -  
6     1       1       1  

Trace complete

It seems there are many layer 2 of the network device in from our source to destination that are not visible but They have an important impact on the result; these layer 2 of the network devices have many roles, including security issue like Span ,Tap ,deep packet inspection or any other security technology or just layer 2 switches. You can see some hop counts in the traceroute results, but there are certainly many devices in the middle and I am looking for theory or practical way to find an answer for this question.

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