How can we identify layer two device in a network or what are those device effects on a frame

This is sample of a traceroute to google.com:

TraceRoute from Network-Tools.com to 216.58.194.46 [google.com]
Hop (ms)    (ms)    (ms)             IP Address Host name
1     0       0       0          206.123.64.233   -  
2     Timed out       Timed out       Timed out               -  
3     1       1       1          4.68.70.166     google-level3-3x10g.dallas.level3.net  
4     1       1       1          108.170.240.129      -  
5     1       1       1          209.85.242.53    -  
6     1       1       1          216.58.194.46   dfw25s12-in-f14.1e100.net  

Trace complete

It seems there are many layer 2 of the network device in from our source to destination that are not visible but They have an important impact on the result; these layer 2 of the network devices have many roles, including security issue like Span ,Tap ,deep packet inspection or any other security technology or just layer 2 switches. You can see some hop counts in the traceroute results, but there are certainly many devices in the middle and I am looking for theory or practical way to find an answer for this question.

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