The risk of infant and maternal mortality as well as pregnancy related to the reduction of complications can by improving access to quality inter-conception and preconception care. Healthy birth outcomes, health condition treatment, and early identification of infants can help prevent disability and death and ensure that children reach their full potential. There are various social determinants that relate to infant and maternal mortality. These factors are access to appropriate inter conception and preconception healthcare, age, preconception status and poverty. Similarly a child and infant health are also influenced by socio-demographic elements such as family income and also have a link to the mental and physical health of caregivers and parents (Kindig, 2007).
There are ethnic and racial disparities in morbidity and mortality for children and mothers, mainly among the African Americans. These differences are arises from social health determinants. Determining the maternal health is by the health status and health behavior at the pre-pregnancy stage, which also influence other social and environmental factors like chronic stress and access to health care. The physical environments that determine maternal health include barriers to health birth and pregnancy such as the inability to access the best health care during and before pregnancy (Kindig, Asada and Booske, 2008).
These environment factors may affect the ability of a mother to engage in healthy behaviors and may have an impact on her health. Genetic problems such as high blood pressure during pregnancy can also affect the overall outcome of maternal and infant survival and health. Factors affecting pregnancy outcome also influences the social determinants of child and infant health. Social factors such as ethnic and racial disparities, family income, health insurance coverage and educational attainment also act as the determinants of children’s health. The physical determinants of a child’s health are factors that affect the physical and cognitive development of an infant. These include the mother’s behavior, nutrition and heath during pregnancy. The children’s physical d development is also by breast milk that has benefits to their growth, immunity ad development. Also, children have to be reared in nurturing and safe families, neighborhoods free from social adversities and maltreatment. The physical environment, social environment, individual health and access to health care determinants are the most essential since we have control over than genetics. Mothers should be encouraged to change behavior by stopping alcohol and substance intake so as to health delivery and childbirth. Policies can be set to change the physical, social environment and ensure healthcare is accessible to all people (Fox, 2006).
The World Bank Development database provides compiled data from 192 countries to notify countries facing the highest risk of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. According to this epidemiological data, on infant mortality rate is an essential indicator for determining the health of a population. The rates of IMR vary with the highest rate found in sub-Saharan countries and the lowest in European countries. Understanding the spatial disparities in this health issue and quantifying the risk factors are vital for policymakers in coming up with appropriate interventions at a regional or global level. Data also suggest that maternal mortality is a vital factor that attributes to the health and risks of infant mortality. Data shows the need to shape policies on access to health care services during pregnancy, improve female education and call for behavior change. Therefore, data is essential in acknowledging the significance of health issues. It helps policymakers tailor the most appropriate and current intervention so as to reduce Infant and maternal mortality as part of millennium development goal.
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