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Liberian culture

How are cultural differences playing out in Liberia now and why these differences are seemingly more of a force for change than economic and sustainability concerns?

The lasting effects of Liberian civil wars remain catastrophic.  Many people died and 250,000 a third of its population flee to neighboring countries.  This was led to differences in human demographics with the country’s economy remaining left in ruins. Currently, the cultural differences in Liberia have been key factors in inadequate basic infrastructure as well as services. Because of cultural differences; part of Liberia faces many challenges such as reintegrating many of its ex-combatants into the society (Kieh, 2007). This means that the country is focused on settling down the immediate needs before deciding on economic and sustainability one. Cultural differences have led to tremendous development needs which need to take time before sustainability comes in.  Due to a mixed culture that has suffered the effects of civil wars, Liberia languishes almost at the bottom of many indicators on the Human Development Index (Gerdes, 2013).  A few people have acquired a good education and hence, improving the health as well as the education systems remain urgent priorities when compared to economic and sustainability. Because of the effects of the war, Liberia culture is disintegrated with cultures mixing coupled with weak, post-conflict and medical infrastructure stretching to breaking point.

The Firestone and the Warlord history present the effects of cultural differences in a country, especially in the Liberia’s civil war. Liberia still faces high uneasy cultural differences relationship even though it is not as bad as that of the time of its warlord Charles Taylor. Charles Taylor had huge ambitions motivated by cultural differences which made him overthrow Samuel Doe. Just as he wanted to find the most strategic spot in Liberia, many cultures are directed in the similar trend making development and sustainability a problem.  For instance, the Firestone Liberian rubber plantation is next to the airport with everything that influences cultural sects would want (Gerdes, 2013). This makes other cultures remain Beck regarding development, and hence, sustainability becomes a problem. Cultural differences in Liberia can be seen through the relationship of Firestone leadership and Taylor’s one.  This was remarkable as Tailor used the company as his base of operations during civil war that killed over 300,000 people. In Liberia, a few have access to valued resources leading to both a cultural and an economic gap in the population. During the civil war, Firestone struck a deal with the warlord and gave millions of dollars to Taylor in exchange for being able to keep its profitable rubber business working. The money provided the financial help needed for the revolution. This led to chaos as well as brutality to an end despite the fact that the population was left in the mixed state.  Liberia is still healing from its civil war effects, and there is still doubt that the cultural differences are hindering development. Investors always depend on a peaceful culture for the decision to operate (Gerdes, 2013).    Differences in Liberian culture still pose a threat to attaining this important step that leads to sustainable development.  Firestone did not leave Liberia from the fact that the decision to remain was very costly.  The company managed to preserve valuable economic asset for Liberia, but the country needs to forge a national culture that can help to solve its immediate needs before it goes to development and sustainability.  Hence, cultural differences in Liberia are playing more of a force for change instead of economic and sustainability concerns.

How would you analyze and evaluate the financial and economic challenges of the mining firms? Are these similar to or different from the challenges faced by managers in land-based companies in extractive industries? Why? Given that position, what role should sustainability play in the new regulations?

Seabed mining has always remained under the radar for years, but high production costs, low commodity prices as well as limited available technologies have put many projects on hold. The modern deep-sea mining industry presents an opportunity for enormous economic gain through the commercial harvest of a diversity of high-grade minerals that are found at great ocean depths in the world (Bell, 1981).  Unfortunately, it has become a particular adverse consequence of mining, and hence a potential flashpoint for many social conflicts lying in the damage to the deep-sea ecosystems that result from mining activities. In advancing the conversation on the management of economic consequences of the currently unknown environmental impacts of the deep-sea mining, there is a developed typology of likely impacts.  This draws on the literature from similar industries to explain how others have implemented such financial tools – particularly, environmental insurance, environmental bonds as well as mutual insurance in a deal with every impact type.  Hence, proper planning is always needed in specifying and identifying the most appropriate strategy or a combination of thereof, that provides enough financial protection against unknown impacts that are related to deep-sea mining. The ability to anticipate mining results remains limited because of lack of knowledge on deep-sea ecosystem complexity, biodiversity as well as the extent of environmental and even social implications from mining activities. Hence, it remains important that policies which guide mineral extraction from the deep seas base on adaptive management which allows the integration of advanced scientific information coupled with technology advances (Ehlers, Wolfrum, Borgese & Pacem in Maribus Convocation, 2002).Governance initiatives for international waters as well as the seabed must be strengthened.  In this case, the precautionary strategy must avoid repeating examples of popular destructive activities associated with conventional mining. Therefore, analyzing and evaluating the financial and economic challenges of the mining firms involve financial tools such as production cost, environmental insurance costs, environmental bonds as well as a mutual insurance cost. Usually, seabed mining challenges are not similar those that are faced by managers in land-based firms in extractive industries.  The reason is that seabed mining demands more regarding cost and expertise as opposed to those on land. Similarly, the risks of seabed mining are relatively more as compared to those on land. Additionally, challenges faced by a manager in mining firms that are on land are always in a better position to predict problems than those in seabed mining companies.

Sustainability has a significant role to play in the new regulations.  There is a need for mining regulations as well as standards to benefit ‘mankind as a whole.’ This will ensure that and host country policies do not lead to an unfair advantage to the commercial exploiters. Sustainability must also play in the new regulations because Deep Seabed Mining has potential environmental impacts leading to need for the development of environmental standards that safeguard sustainability under the International Seabed Authority supervision. Based on the facts that extraction presents very significant technical challenges that make it not a financially viable pursuit, sustainability in the regulations is critical (In Warner & In Kaye, 2016).From an environmental perspective, deep seabed mining can have large scale irreversible harms.  Hence, rules efforts must continue to promote its sustainability despite its low commodity prices as well as the resulting uncertainty in its economic benefits.  Therefore, sustainability is important in the new mining regulations as it will help to mitigate adverse effects of mining while ensuring that the environment is protected.

References

Bell, P. M. (April 28, 1981): Deep seabed mining regulations. Eos, Transactions American             Geophysical Union, 62, 17, 182-187.

Ehlers, P., Wolfrum, R., Borgese, E. M., & Pacem in Maribus Convocation, (2002): Marine           issues: From a scientific, political and legal perspective. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.

Gerdes, F. (2013): Civil war and state formation: The political economy of war and peace in         Liberia. Frankfurt:

In Warner, R., & In Kaye, S. B. (2016): Routledge handbook of maritime regulation and enforcement. Campus.

Kieh, G. K. (2007). The first Liberian civil war: The crises of underdevelopment. New York:        Peter Lang.

Sherry Roberts is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in legit research paper writing services if you need a similar paper you can place your order for research essay writing services.

 

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