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Sociology

  1. Union representation from 1933-1945

The enactment of the New Deal reform and relief programs by Frances Perkins enabled workers to have a pension system. The Social Security is a durable and important element within this program. The goal of the program was to provide a humanitarian approach to workers concern and prevent depressions in the future. The Social Security Act- 1935 enabled the destitute elderly to receive direct aid, and the pension plan was also available for many citizens and, in fact, all workers. The program also aided the handicapped, provided federal funding for unemployment insurance programs under the state’s operation and to mothers with dependent children.

 Perkins also had his department set a bill for hour and wages standards for those working under the federal contract. The bill was enacted a year later after the supreme court decisions. It was to be administered by the Labor Department. For manufacture of goods, the government contract had to be $10,000 at the lower side and needed 8-hour a day and forty hours per week. The contracts also stipulated that work had to in a healthy and safe conditions and the sectary is the one to set the minimum wages following the locally prevailing rates.

The Walsh-Healey Act managed to prepare a way for other much broader hour and wage legislation. The second bill by Perkins known as the fair labor standards further provided the need to set up minimum wages and maximum working hours among industrial workers. With this modification of the earlier Walsh-Healey Act, the bill gained enormous support from the public and the bill finally became the law of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) in 1938. The law was also under the administration of the Department of Labor. It set 25 cents as the minimum wage for each hour and a maximum of 40 hours per week. The labor department by 1933 was able to address the labor problems that workers were facing. These efforts by Perkins are the main reason that contributed to an increase in labor participation.

Her Division of Labor Standards helped to promote and improve the conditions of work through voluntary means. The standards also ensured that workers received adequate training and companies to be held responsible for the health of workers. The labor division worked with workers unions. Therefore, the unions during this time gained tremendous boost after passing of the National Labor Relations Act of 193 saw workers gain their right to bargain and organize collectively. The act also established the National Labor Relations Board for overseeing the election representations and adjudicating labor disputes. Unions after passing of the Wegner Act saw its members swell from 3.8 million in 1935 and by 1945 the members were 12.6 million. Union membership fell as part of adjusting to the harsh realities of World War II. During this time, there were massive labor problems, such as wage freezes so as to finance the war.

2) Reproduction of occupational gender segregation

Occupational gender segregation means the tendency of women working in jobs socially designed for them and men taking up jobs perceived to be manly. The reproduction of Occupational gender segregation is through the human rational/capital choice, preference theories, and patriarchy. The segregation is also in gender wage gap and the relationship between occupational segregation and earnings inequality whereby men are earning much higher than females. Some of the root causes of occupational gender segregation under-investment in human capital in terms of training and schooling.

There is the element of comparative biological advantages, and preferences and prejudices. Others include differential income roles, stereotypes and socialization, organizational practices such as the glass ceiling and entry barriers. The relationships between inequality of earnings and occupational segregations are simple, women concentrate in occupations that pay less compared to occupations that men are concentrated. It happens when skills demands and other working conditions are under control.

About the widespread law enforcement on equality legislation, there have been impressive advances to women. For example in areas like progressive loss of physical attributes on productivity as an essential aspect, advances in women’s education, family roles changes and successful skill challenging of gender roles through the feminist movement. Current research has narrowed down the nuanced initial explanations and list of potentiality vital factors that were in the earlier debates. The main priority in recent studies falls under a set of for factors: stereotypes, choice of study filed, demand for flexible and shorter hours for work. Due to differential income roles and unequal care burden. The last factor is the covert biases and barriers in organizational practices, such as the procedures foe collective bargain.

3) Working conditions for racial-ethnic minority and immigrant workers

Immigrant and racial-ethnic minority workers receive low pay. In most instances, the business owners can record the employees as working part-time so as to justify the low pay. In reality, the workers are working a full day. The workers also have to work long hours beyond the stipulated time. There are hardly few full-time workers who did less than 40 hours in a week, especially those working in restaurants (Polert, 2006).

These workers also have to work late into the evening. Working such long hours also affect the social, family and health lives of workers. They do not have live outside the workplace. Another problem with working overtime is that they do not receive pay for this over time. It is normal for them to work to the point that all customers leave the premise (Pollert, 2006). These workers also face the challenge of discrimination because of their nationality and ethnicity. Thus, leading to unfair treatment, verbal abuse, bully and lack of job promotion. Only the British workers get promoted (Pollert, 2006). They also have to work in poor conditions which pose a risk to their health. Additionally these workers may lack leaves and paid leaves, medical compensation in cases of injury at work and are not medically covered or given medical allowances.

The main reason for the workers to work in such environment, include the economic pressures that they face. Some individual strategies to deal with these pressures include the need to broaden opportunities, career progression, and pragmatic acceptance. Lack of other alternatives and jobs acting as stepping stone. Also the economic opportunities and circumstances in their countries could be much worse. Their mother countries could also be having high unemployment rate. There should be strong enforcement of laws to check the practices of companies. Government agencies should understand the conditions people of color are facing in the workplace and enhance regulations to protect them.

4) “Ideal workers.”

The ideal workers are those who show their commitment towards their job and lack any other domestic accountabilities. An ideal worker should be ambitious, intelligent, action-oriented and autonomous. He or she should also be hardworking, successful and confident. This concept began in the second half of the twentieth century. It was a vital aspect of the development of the U.S economy. During the twentieth century, jobs done at home transformed into being paid jobs such as caring for elders, children, cleaning and serving food. This idea has the privilege of awarding well off people in the society. For instance, a white man is considered rich and hard working and in exchange he earns through wage growth, loyalty, and mobility anticipation by his employers.

The standard of an ideal worker contributes to gender inequality because women mainly with children were not the ideal workers. This concept is time bind because many women even those with children are ideal workers who contribute towards the country’s economic growth. Women in this country today have undone the gendered expectations that motherhood is an essential aspect of femininity and have navigated through the pronatalist pressures surrounding motherhood. These developments have helped to change the schemas that conceptualize ideal workers and mothers as falling under incompatible status (Deutsch, 2007).

5) Globalization

Income inequality has increased in many industrialized countries as the income for skilled workers experiencing a fast rise than compensation for the low-skilled labor workers. Globalization has enabled consumers to pay low prices for imported goods, and this leads to a decrease in domestic demand for locally manufactured goods. Thus, through the free movement of trade and labor from globalization, there will be increased prosperity to these industrialized nations and an advantage to the mobile employees. Globalization further supports the concept of buyer-driven commodities in which product design is the main element of investment in marketing and development as vital aspects of productions. Large corporations can allow small business to own the equipment and plants while it concentrates on the intangible aspects of the business.

References

Deutsch Francine. Undoing gender. Gender & Society. 2007; 21:106–27.

Pollert, A (2006) The ethnic minority and migrant workers experience in restaurants and hotels: necessities and strategies.

Carolyn Morgan is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in legitimate essay writing service. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from research paper services.

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