Chronemics concerns how we refer to and perceive time. People tend to value time as being a precious resource, and other tend to be more relaxed about how they spend time. According to Bruneau (2012), in the western society, people consider time as the equivalent of money. Schwartz (1989) claims that people tend to view time in a different way. For instance, some people consider it a great respect to slow down and take a long-term view of time.
Olfactics refers to the study of the influence of smell on the communication behavior. Schleidt (1980) found that it is possible for human beings to differentiate between two sexes through smell along. Scheidt & Hold (1977) stated that the human subjects can identify their odor and that of their partners from other people.
Haptics refers to the powerful form of communication through touch. According to Milleville-Pennel et al. (2011) haptic interaction normally influence the verbal communication of partners when sharing haptic information. Yee et al. (2007) argues that haptic communication tend to increase the feeling of co-presence in the virtual environment.
Vocalic refers to the vocal messages related to pitch, volume, and rate. Misunderstanding between disputing people occurred when a vocal message relayed taken out of context. Hinkle (2001) conducted a study on supervisor and subordinate non-verbal communication and found there is a strong relationship between the nonverbal supervisor immediacy and subordinate liking for the supervisors. Floyd & Ray (2003) claim that the fundamental speaker frequency relates to the perception of the observer on the affection level of the speaker.
Proxemics refers to the way people regard personal space and territory. The personal space that an individual prefers depends on the situation. Crane & Peery (1980), states that interpersonal interaction in the intimate zone is normally more intense and more stressful with a stranger than interaction in the personal zone. According to Hall (1959), personal space is a series of bubbles that surround the person with different intensity. Hall (1959), claim that people regulate the bubbles to allow others to the more intense regions as a function of affiliation and familiarity.
Kinesics refers to the body behavior to do with ****** expression, hand gestures, and posture. Kinesics can communicate the mood of a person. Camerino et al. (2013) claim that teachers should have non-verbal communication style such as kinesics as it is effective in terms of instruction efficacy. Jonsson et al. (2009) state that the kinetic cues that people usually send and receive enables us to understand what we share nonverbally.
Chromodynamics refers to the way people use color to express an idea. Thomsen, (1976) states that people can use the color presented to describe something. He states that color has the power of suggesting emotion and mood. Schneider, (2012) claims that if we use color properly, it can move people to becoming playful, excited, powerful, and relaxed.
Oculesics refers to the eye contact variance. People can interpret the eye contact in different ways dependent on the length of the eye contact, the setting, receiver and sender. In a study by Hess (1975), regarding the pupil of the human eye, the study found that the pupil respond differently to different circumstance. The pupil may widen or close under friendly or fearful conditions. Nolen (1995) suggest that smiles and eye contact can be useful in relieving tension in serious business situations.
Bruneau, T (2012). Chronemics A review of General Semantics 69 (1)
Castañer, M., Torrents, C., Anguera, T., & Jonsson, G. (2009). Identifying and analyzing motor skill responses in body movement and dance. Behavioral Research Methods 41(3), 857–867
Crane, P & Peery, C (1980). Personal space regulation Journal of Psychology 106
Dumas, C Chellali, A & Milleville-Pennel, I (2011). Influences of haptic communication on shared manual task Interacting with Computers 23 (4)
Floyd, K & Ray, G (2003). Human affection exchange: IV Vocalic predictors of the perceived affection in initial interaction Western Journal of Communication 67 (1)
Hall, T (1959). The silent language. NY, Doubleday
Hess, E.H. (1975). The role of pupil size in communication. Scientific America 233, 110-119.
Hinkle, L (2001). Perceptions of Supervisor non-verbal immediacy, vocalic, and subordinate liking Communication Research Reports 18 (2)
Jonsson, G Anguera, T Castaner, M & Camerino, O (2013). Kinesics and Proxemics communication of experts Qual Quant 47
Nolen, W (1995). Reading people Institute of Internal Auditors
Schleidt, M & Hold, B (1977). The importance of human odor in non-verbal communication 43 (3)
Schleidt, M (1980). Personal odor and nonverbal communication Ethology and Sociology 1 (3)
Schneider, S (2012). The Psychology of Color in design Web Design
Schwartz, T. (1989). Acceleration Syndrome: Does everyone live in the fast lane? Utne Reader, 31, 36–43.
Thomsen, D (1976). Chromodynamics Science News 109 (26)
Yee, N Merget, D, Koslow, D & Brave, S (2007). Virtual interpersonal touch Human-Computer Interaction 22.